Nanoscience and the environment

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She moved to the University of Birmingham in , where she was appointed Professor of Environmental Nanoscience.

Nanoscience and the Environment: Volume 7

Through her research she has revolutionised the understanding of surface reactivity in natural and man-made substances and has pioneered work on the synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials in a nanotoxicological context; she led the development of the first stable isotope labelled nanomaterials. She is associate editor of Mineralogical Magazine and has served as guest editor to Elements.

She has published more than peer-reviewed papers and edited 2 books on environmental science topics. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website.

Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Elsevier. Published Date: 28th July Page Count: View all volumes in this series: Frontiers of Nanoscience. For regional delivery times, please check When will I receive my book? Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle.

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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Summary of potential health impact of some nanomaterials in various biological systems, taken from Setyawati et al. Elevation of ROS level. Activation of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9, decreased expression of Bcl Detected increase mRNA and protein expression of Bax and cytochrome c genes.

Time dependent PARP cleavage induced by TiO2 Cytochrome c release from mitochondrial to cytosol and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. In H cells, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and LDH release. For original references of the studies summarized in this Table refer to Setyawati et al. The large majority of studies report the nominal dose, 7 usually based on mass concentrations which might not be the most relevant dose 8 metrics for NMs.

The nominal dose is always reported despite the well-known 9 dynamic transformations in particular dissolution, aggregation and sedimentation, 10 organic interactions of NMs in ecotoxicological media, which is likely to affect the 11 actual dose. In addition, mass may not be always an appropriate metric for dose 12 measurement.

Some studies have qualitatively demonstrated the effect of an 15 individual property e. However, there are currently no comprehensive studies 17 investigating the interplay between these properties on the toxicity of NMs on any 18 type of NMs. This is, in part, caused by the complexity of nanotoxicological studies, the 29 new properties, the impact of the behavior of NMs in the toxicological media on their 30 toxicity, the limited characterization of NM properties and the lack of standardized and 31 validated approaches for NM characterization etc.

Further research is required, in 32 particular to understand the fundamentals of NM toxicity. Some priorities to be 33 addressed are presented below. This research has focused o o e iall ep ese tati e NMs , hi h a 2 have contributed to the ambiguity and confusion in the field of nanotoxicology as these 3 NMs are largely polydisperse and unstable under toxicological test conditions.

Fewer 4 data have been produced in advancing our understanding of the more fundamental 5 science such as: 1 the dose, dose metrics and dose-response relationship, 2 role of NM 6 properties on their toxicity, etc. For risk assessment purposes, it is 9 conceivable that research should focus on commercially available NMs and in the form 10 they are likely to be present in the environment or in the matrix where they occur.

To advance out fundamental, scientific 13 understanding of nanotoxicology, stable un-aggregated , monodisperse very small 14 variability in each tested NM properties such as size, shape, crystalinity, etc. NMs are 15 more likely to answer the key questions. Furthermore, understanding the 6 uptake mechanisms and quantifying the rates and extent of uptake will improve our 7 understanding of the effective dose and the best dose metrics to express the toxicity of 8 NMs see detailed discussion in Chapter 5.

Several publications have presented sets of 12 minimum characterization required to underpin the EHS research and regulation of NMs 13 Bouwmeester et al. Such protocols should be fully validated by inter-laboratory 23 comparisons , fully quantitative, fully representative i. In most complex media, we are some way off 25 being able to do and validation of current methods and development of new mthods is 26 required.

However, other NM properties such as shape, oxidation state, surface defects 31 may enhance the toxicity of NMs in addition to the increased surface area or surface 32 atoms George et al. There is increasing evidence of the impact of individual 33 properties effect of NM size have been investigated extensively of NMs on their 34 toxicity on individual NMs, but there is a lack of systematic investigations of the 35 interplay between the different properties Luyts et al. The 2 difficulties are exacerbated by the enormous variety of NPs that are in use. For size, the most studied parameter, some studies indicate that 5 particle size has an effect on the toxicity of a material, with an inverse relation between 6 size and toxicity.

However, other studies present conflicting data i. There is currently an urgent need, 14 partly being addressed, to report a measured exposure concentrations, in particular for 15 NPs that are unstable in ecotoxicological media because of the dynamic changes that 16 occur during exposure Tejamaya et al, Internal dose is rarely reported and 17 development in methodologies for their accurate measurement is needed. In adition, there is no conclusive evidence 24 that any of these metrics are generally suitable for all NMs and processes.

At present, 25 researchers have not been able to establish a single parameter that best describes the 26 dose and the observed dose-response relationship for toxicological testing. It is likely 27 that different dose metrics may be suitable for different types of NMs and studies.

Until 28 particle structure and toxicity are quantitatively related to specific parameters, here will 29 be a continuing need to be specify and measure other parameters Oberdorster et al.

Table of Contents

The rapid growth of nanotechnology 34 industries and the extensive potential for use of NMs in consumer products indicates 35 that NMs are likely to be released to the environment and thus environmental 36 organisms and humans are likely to get exposed to these emerging contaminants.

Some NMs are likely 4 to be hazardous; however risk posed by these NMs is still unknown due to the lack of 5 information on exposure and on bioavailability and toxicity. Wang, T. Green, A. Henglein, and M. Rawn, W. Porter, E. Payzant, and A. Safari, , Size effects in 7 PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of particle size on spontaneous polarization and strains: 8 J. Rose, J.

Bottero, G. Lowry, J. Jolivet, and M. Wiesner, , 10 Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and 11 safety perspective: Nat Nano, v. Lead, , Nanoparticle dispersity in toxicology: Nature 19 Nanotechnol. Xu, Y. Zheng, and H. Yin, , Shape control of CeO2 nanostructure materials 21 in microemulsion systems: Mater. Suslov, G. Kuzmina, O. Parenago, and A. Lo Nostro, and P. Baglioni, , Synthesis and characterization 26 of zinc oxide nanoparticles: application to textiles as UV-absorbers: J. Nanoparticle Res. Sigg, M. Clift, F. Herzog, M. Minghetti, B.

Johnston, A. Petri-Fink, and B. Royal Soc. Klang, M. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Quate, and C. Gerber, , Atomic Force Microscope: Phys. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, and E.

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Scheringer, M. MacLeod, and K. Hungerbnhler, , Estimation of 6 cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: Contribution of nano-functionalized 7 plastics and textiles: Sci. Jouneau, G. Thollet, D. Basset, and C. Juganson, A. Ivask, K.

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Kasemets, M. Mortimer, and A. Kahru, , 12 Toxicity of Ag, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles to selected environmentally relevant test 13 organisms and mammalian cells in vitro: a critical review: Arch. Colloid Interf. Terminology for NMs. PAS BSI British Standards. Robinson, , Synthesis of hydrated CeO2 nanowires and 22 nanoneedles: Mater.

Mylon, and M. Elimelech, , Influence of humic acid on the aggregation kinetics 30 of fullerene C60 nanoparticles in monovalent and divalent electrolyte solutions: 31 J. Robertson, R. Hamilton, and B. Gorbunov, , A Lagrangian 2 model of the evolution of the particulate size distribution of vehicular emissions: 3 Sci. Dybowska, S. Luoma, and E. Valsami-Jones, , A novel 7 approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary 8 exposures: Nanotoxicol.

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Lead, , Silver 24 nanoparticles: Behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment: Environ. There's plaenty of room at the bottom. Sys, v. Biswas, P. Rosenkranz, M. Jepson, J. Lead, V. Stone, C. Tyler, and 2 T. Fernandes, , Effects of silver and cerium dioxide micro- and nano-sized 3 particles on Daphnia magna: J. Johansson, G. Omstedt, J. Langner, and G. Ort, R. Scholz, and B. Nowack, , Engineered NMs in rivers - 11 Exposure scenarios for Switzerland at high spatial and temporal resolution: 12 Environ.

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NIST 17 special publication National Institute of Standards and Technology. Musee, L. Sikhwivhilu, and V. admin