Off-site costs were estimated in various ways. The costs incurred by this process were estimated in terms of increased expenditure on electrical energy generation Marques, and water treatment Hitzhusen et al. Off-site costs can also be estimated based on the operational costs of dredging waterways Hitzhusen et al.
Off-site costs can also be determined based on price rises for agricultural commodities, resulting in macroeconomic instabilities Alfsen et al. Depending on the methods used to estimate on- and off-site soil erosion costs, the results can be extremely variable Table 1. The majority of studies estimate on-site costs, and these studies show an even wider fluctuation in the estimated figures.
Moreover, in terms of the breakdown of total erosion costs, off-site costs are higher than on-site costs.
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For instance, in the United States the annual soil erosion on- and off-site costs were estimated at 44 billion dollars a year. However, when we look at on-site costs alone, the figures vary between 5 and 20 billion dollars, but the variation for off-site costs is between 55 thousand and 37 billion dollars a year.
Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries, The by Piers M. Blaikie - uzosumogezor.tk
Among the Brazilian studies, Marques et al. Operationalization of on-site costs consists of aggregating the expense incurred in repairs of the adverse effects of any disruption in production, and off-site costs are operationalized mainly in terms of damage repair.
Erosion costs do not depend solely on the physical quantity of soil loss. They are also dependent on the economic repercussions of these losses.
The physical erosion data gives some idea of the impact of erosion on quality, but is not sufficient to indicate the economic scale of its impacts. The main aim is to establish figures for the amount of losses. This scenario draws attention to the urgent need to prevent and control soil degradation processes. For this purpose, data on erosion costs are of fundamental importance, especially in developing countries, which are usually more economically dependent on farming.
In addition to physical, chemical and biological losses, soil erosion causes economic losses which can be expressed in terms of the costs incurred by farmers and society to repair the damage arising from this process. The estimated costs of soil erosion vary from the 5 dollars spent to remove each ton of sediment to keep navigation activities in operation, to This gives some idea of the importance of conservation management techniques designed to minimize soil degradation, reduce the erosion effects and also to make it possible, in the medium and short term, to mitigate on- and off-site costs.
Therefore, in addition to being in the public and private interest, these land management systems are in line with the principles of sustainable agriculture. Estimating erosion costs helps economic agencies in decision-making on soil conservation policy and provides governments with tangible evidence of the need to implement public policies aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of economic activities linked to the farming sector. ALDY, J. The role of technology in sustaining agriculture and the environment. The cost of soil erosion in Nicaragua. The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries.
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Assessing the costs of land degradation: A case study for the Puentes catchment, southeast Spain.
Soil erosion in developing countries: A politicoeconomic explanation
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